Machu Picchu is a city of mystery and considered to be the most important archaeological site in South America. Not only is it important, but beautiful as well with its unique architectures and environment around it. It’s between the Inca’s massive stone structures, with the Uramba River winding below.
This city was "discovered" By Hiram Bingham in 1911, and from there it's been an argument over it origin purpose when built. They do know that it was an Inca religious center and small city, with agricultural terraces to provide food, in an ideal location -- a location to see but not to be seen.
Theories show that it could have been a country estate of Pachacuti, proving its existence in mud 15th century. Some think that it was abandoned by the Incas before Spanish conquest, yet no one knows why. Overlooked by conquistadors, it was untouched until 1911.
The Incas built Machu Picchu on a mountain ridge, 2340m above sea level. They lived there between 1200 and 1450 AD. Other people lived there before around 650 AD.
The Incas built houses, fields and temples by cutting the rock on the mountain so it was flat. They built an observatory to look at the stars.
When the Spanish invaded Peru, the Incas left Machu Picchu. Nobody knows why they did that, but some think it was because they were scared of the Spanish.
Today, Machu Picchu is very difficult to get to because it is so high in the mountains. It has only one way in and a stone wall to protect it. Nobody knew it was there until a man called Hiram Bingham found it in 1911.
Today, there is a new road so that tourists can visit. People can also walk along the Inca Trail, or take a train from Cusco.